Why did people stop using outhouses? If water supplies or treatment options aren’t available, composting privies are also possible: http://humanurehandbook.com/manual.html
Muriel, the toilet types that you list (outhouses and composting privies) are actually feasible technical solutions to the problem (with a couple minor caveats). However, they are not desirable or even acceptable to the vast majority of the population. For outhouses (1) no one wants to go outside to use the bathroom and (2) outhouses are seen as technology for either the impoverished or for the 19th century. As for composting toilets, nearly everyone wants to “flush and forget.” It is a small percentage of the population that are willing to either handle or compost their feces.
If affordable alternatives to the flush toilet are to address this problem, they will need to be seen as aspirational and/or yield adequate economic or social benefits to be widely accepted. I have heard the comment in rural Alabama that composting toilets “aren’t much better than an outhouse.” Among environmentalists, composting toilets are seen as aspirational and yield increased social status in that subculture. At this point that is simply not true among most Americans.
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